Routine childhood vaccinations are an important way to help ensure that your child is protected against serious diseases, like measles and whooping cough. Check with your child’s doctor to make sure they’re protected against vaccine-preventable diseases. The CDC provides easy-to-understand vaccine information by age: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/
An annual physical gives your child's pediatrician a chance to give them a thorough physical exam that also addresses any emotional, developmental, or social concerns. In addition to monitoring heart and blood pressure and testing for diabetes, pediatricians use this annual visit to discuss diet, exercise options, provide pediatric vision screenings, and testing for cholesterol and anemia among other things.
It's also a good chance to address important questions or concerns you have as a parent, especially with teenagers, including adolescent issues of substance use such as drinking, smoking, drugs, sexual activity, and depression.
Most schools and colleges also require documentation of an updated physical exam, and athletes often need an additional sports screening. Don't wait until the last minute-be sure to schedule a well-child visit as close to the start of the school year as possible.
Additionally, if an 18 year old would like their caregivers to have access to their health information as well as decision making power in the case of an accident or illness, they will need to complete a HIPAA release form and a health care proxy form. In general, if they are living in a state that is different than their caregiver(s), the student needs to complete forms for both states. This article has more information.